"The REAL science behind the carb and fat blockers used within ProfessorNutz™'s ProfessorNutz! I wanted to make sure this made sense to everyone so I broke it down into three main parts: the science portion, the application portion, and the common sense portion.

PLEASE read the research yourself and reach out to me with your experience about the product!" 

ProfessorNutz™™ Fat Blocker (100% Natural Plant Extract: Modified Oligosaccharides Cyclodextrins Derived From Corn), ProfessorNutz™™ Carb Blocker (100% Natural Plant Extracts: Cissus Veldt Grape Extract & Modified Cyclomaltohexaose-Cyclodextrin Derived From Corn)

"What's up, everyone? Online prep coach Alex Kikel here with theprepcoach.com and this is "The Science Behind ProfessorNutz" from ProfessorNutz™. This is gonna be in a couple places. So, if you're watching on your screen, then this is a YouTube video, Vimeo video, somewhere with ProjectAD or ProfessorNutz, maybe on their website. And if you're listening to this, this is gonna be on "Beast Fitness Radio," which will be found at Libsyn, iTunes, all that kind of good stuff. Type into Google, it'll pop up right away.

Before we get into the science, because, you know, somebody in the industry made a video that basically said that ProfessorNutz was the worst product ever. And then, Joe Binley and everyone had to come out with a response video basically saying, "You know what, we realize that at some point we're gonna have to put out the ingredients of the product, of the carb & fat blocker." It was just sooner than I guess they wanted to. And I don't know if that could be from a legal aspect, from a patenting aspect. I'm sure that's what it is. Again, I'm not smart enough on the legal side of things to even talk about that. So, if you guys wanna know they didn't put it out originally, reach out to them. That's not my forte. My forte is the science behind these things.

So, before we begin, before we go any further, I need to make things very clear about my affiliation with everyone. ProjectAD does sponsor my podcast, which is "Beast Fitness Radio." With that, I get a monthly product allotment and I also get a kickback on the actual discount code used. Now, I wanna be very apparent and front-up with this. Every penny that I've ever received from ProjectAD, I've put straight into a college fund that I started for my future kids. I started that whenever we started with ProjectAD on the podcast, maybe a year-and-a-half, two years ago. It's been a while. And I've always liked ProjectAD as a company because the people behind it, because of the actual products. Because at the end of the day, you could have the nicest people in the world but if they don't put out good products, it really doesn't matter. But they just do a good job of doing everything, and I really like the morals and the ethics of the company. So, that's the affiliation.

Now, I want to be honest with you guys about two big things. First of all, me and Joe don't agree on everything. We've butted heads in the past. He's a good guy. It's just, we don't always see eye to eye. So, if I see something I don't agree with, I'm gonna say it, or if he says something that I don't agree with, I'm gonna say it. Again, I've said that in the past and guess what, we're adults. We butted heads, we both, you know, basically agreed to disagree and you move on past it. That's the nice thing about being able to be an adult. It's not like you're children where you have to be proven right every time and if not then you can't be friends, you have to go off and bash someone or bash their products or anything like that. So, there's no reason for me to lie from aspect because again, I've told Joe in the past, "Hey, I don't agree with this or that." Or, you know, "You're wrong on this. You're wrong on that." Or, "This person's wrong with this or that." And so, there's that. There's also the fact that the sponsorship from ProjectAD, it's a nice kickback, I'll be honest with you, the affiliate program they have, but it's not my main income. That is not even part of my income because I do put it away for my future children for college. So, there's no reason for me to put ProjectAD up on a pedestal from a product standpoint or a view standpoint unless I 100% agree with them because 100% of my income, what I use to pay my bills, what I use to pay for my bodybuilding, my food, everything, my house, is through my coaching.

So, let's use a little common sense here. If this product, ProfessorNutz, was causing people to gain a bunch of weight because it actually had all the calories that real peanut butter contained, my clients are gonna look like crap on stage because I have people utilizing it at training prep right now. And if they look like crap on stage, guess whose business is gonna go down, mine. Guess whose actual income is gonna down because he looks like a s****y prep coach, mine. So, I wouldn't make them use this product or I wouldn't, you know, offer them to use this product if I didn't believe in it, if I didn't believe the science behind it.

So, now that those biases and everyone's point of view is out of the way and out in the open and very clear, let's get into the science behind this. If you're watching this on a video format, you're gonna see different studies on the screen, different graphs on the screen. I wanna try to make it very, I guess, play-along-ish, so as I'm talking, you can see exactly what I'm talking about. And if you're listening to this on "Beast Fitness Radio," I'm gonna include a link to every single study that I'm referencing in here because there's a good amount.

I do wanna say, before I begin as well, these are the studies that I'm referencing, talking about Cyclodextrin, okay. Now, this specific ingredient was made for these specific studies. ProfessorNutz™ has their own variations that I'm sure they're trying to get patented. And again, I don't know enough about that process. But that is specifically for this form. So, you can see where there is merit and you can see where ProfessorNutz™ had to get very innovative to actually change the actual shape or structure of the molecule to change it to their actual needs. Remember, if you change one small piece, one little part of a molecule or chemical structure, it can completely alter it. Completely. Again, and I've talked about this before, that if you would add something as small as a methyl group on a traditional anabolic, then guess what, you can completely change the characteristics. You can completely change the traits. It will be a completely different drug. New side effects. New beneficial points. There's so many different thing that you change one little thing, you alter one little thing and it'll completely change the profile of anything.

So, ProfessorNutz™ has their own variation of this, but I'm here to talk about the research that they're referencing that says, "Hey, this is a viable option." And now, I believe they're doing studies on their own version of this. So, let's get right into it, guys. There's a lot here. I think the best place to begin would be with how Cyclodextrin works. Obviously, I need to get a drink of water because I will be talking my ass off in this episode video. Again, Cyclodextrin is a fiber. It actually works selectively at actually absorbing different nutrients because of the actual structure of the molecule. So, if you look at typical fiber, it's gonna be linked in kind of large, kind of bulky, you know, chemical chains. Looks kind of, you know, stupid whenever you look at it. And they actually bind fat nonselectively. But whenever you compare that to the molecules of Cyclodextrin, you see it's composed of more of a streamlined chemical chain that's linked head-to-tail and actually forms kind of like a doughnut-esque shape.

So, that outer section of the Cyclodextrin doughnut-like shape actually dissolves very readily in water. So, guess what, there's water found in the intestinal tract. The inner walls, walls of that doughnut hole actually repel water, so they selectively clean the fat molecules. Now, the molecular structure of saturated fats is such that these kind of pro-inflammatory fats are strongly attracted to that soluble Cyclodextrin molecule. So, once we have these saturated fats, are actually bound in that doughnut hole, the cyclodextrin and fat complexes actually become insoluble in water. So, they form almost tiny clumplike materials that are basically excreted from your body before they ever enter the bloodstream.

Again, there's millions of these small Cyclodextrin doughnut-like molecules that are moving around and mixing around inside the intestine and they're readily and rapidly selectively sucking up these unhealthy pro-inflammatory fat molecules. So, that's a big standout thing. I'll get to that in a little bit. But they're sucking up things like your trans fats, your saturated fats, and they're carrying them out of the body, actually in your poop, so in your stool and your fecal matter. And if you look at traditional fiber, that non-selectively binds fat in about a one-to-one ratio. So, if you look about a single gram of Cyclodextrin, it's able to bind up to about nine grams of fat.

Now, this has been researched. Cyclodextrin has been researched in Japan for well over 30 years if my math is right on that. I could be wrong. It might be upwards of 40 by now. But they found, like I previously mentioned, that it drastically reduces glucose spikes as well. So, not only is it selectively absorbing these bad fats like trans fats and saturated fats before they reach the bloodstream, it's also reducing blood glucose spikes and it's actually sparing things like Omega-3 fatty acids. So, since this fiber can bind up to nine times its weight in healthy threatening dietary fats from that intestinal tract, we see these studies and they have people...And again, these will be the ones I'll be referencing on the screen. These will be the studies that I will be actually throwing up the bottom of the podcast. They had people, basically who ate two like really heavy fat meals a day and they had two grams of Cyclodextrin on top of that. They actually took them before the meals. It actually removed up to about, I think it was 300, 320-something calories from the body before it was actually absorbed.

So, let's take a second. Let's compare this to the older, traditional fat blockers on the market that we know. I'm gonna use the big one, Orlistat, because I freaking hate that product and people are still selling it over-the-counter. Those rely on actually inhibiting the lipase enzyme. That actually breaks down triglycerides, which is, again, the major form of dietary fat into basically single fatty acid molecules. Now, those drugs actually leave those triglycerides really lose in the colon. Because of that, you can have things like basically fermentation in your colon. So, you can produce a lot of gas, a lot of fluids, flatulence. You can have that kind of leaky butt...I guess leaky butt syndrome is the best way to say it. Orlistat, in particular, is terrible on things like your liver and kidneys because of how it's processed and digested. Obviously, you don't want to have that oil seeping out of your rectum all day. So, those things like Orlistat aren't only going to be very uncomfortable to live with but I think are worse than almost anything you could be taking on the market, to be completely honest.

So, those are kind of the original fat blockers. And there's other things like Ali and I believe is called Xenical or something like that. We just don't like those. Those are the, we'll say, the pharmaceutical brands of fat blockers and all these things whereas Cyclodextrin's derived from corn. It is just a fiber. So, whenever you're looking at ProfessorNutz and it says that it's 100% natural, it truly is. Now, let's kind of look down...and some of these are gonna be direct quotes from some of the studies. We have studies showing...If you look at Cyclodextrin, I believe this is what Joe Binley was referencing whenever he was talking about the health benefits of this product. We have studies showing basically metabolic benefits, studies on fat blocking. So, we're gonna go through here and kind of break things down a little bit. And by the way, I probably should've warned you beforehand. I may have to put up a disclaimer before this video. It's gonna be a long video. All right, because I'm gonna make sure that it gets it's just due.

So, let's look at the metabolic benefits, first of all. So, we have researchers...and this is gonna be a study, again, that I'll put up on the screen or a link down below. They're basically designed a controlled human study on the metabolic benefits of Cyclodextrin. They used healthy volunteers. Basically, had an overnight fast. Some subjects were given a hundred grams or basically about 3.5 ounces of white bread with water while others were actually given the same amount of white bread with actual 10 grams of cyclodextrin in the water. So, they look at glucose and insulin responses following the bread consumption and they recorded those and they looked at both those groups over a three-hour period.

So, the controlled group that was not taking Cyclodextrin had a dramatic post-meal rise in both glucose and insulin levels. Then, we look at the Cyclodextrin group and it showed a much-reduced rise in post-meal glucose levels as well as a delayed and much-reduced rise in actual post-meal insulin. So, you look at that. We find very similar results that was actually done in a double-blind randomized crossover study, which they had 10 healthy volunteers in that one. We look at Cyclodextrin at dosages of like, you know, 10, 5, 2 grams, and that was actually...in this particular study, was directly mixed with boiled white rice. And at the 5 and 10-gram dose of Cyclodextrin, the amount of glucose that was absorbed by the participants was significantly reduced and the volunteers experienced actually greater satiety, which is one thing people are experiencing with ProfessorNutz, which is pretty interesting because I'm not quite sure on the mechanism on there.

But, you know, there's another study that found Cyclodextrin, again, reduced fast glycemic response to standard carb meals. So, if you're looking at adding Cyclodextrin to carbohydrate-rich meals, it may act kind of somewhat as a glucose disposal. Maybe not a glucose disposal agent or insulin-sensitizing agent, but if it is controlling blood sugar and glucose levels, then there is going to be some positive partitioning going on. It's preventing these glucose spikes, which again, it's just one of the overall long-term benefits of Cyclodextrin because we know, in terms of metabolic health issues that are going on today, a lot of it is because people are obese. People are walking around with extremely highly elevated glucose levels and extremely high elevated blood pressure levels and they are dehydrated. So, that's what causes a lot of these metabolic issues that are kind of rampant in the United States today.

So, now, we kind of move onto some of the studies looking at fat blocking. Now, this one study, scientists actually fed mice a traditional standard Western diet which had fats with the same amount of...the addition of Cyclodextrin supplementation. So, the supplemented group basically showed major reductions, once again, in blood glucose levels of almost all fatty acids. So, we look at that. You look at some of the findings in the study and we see that Cyclodextrin actually removed those fats from the bodies. So, it was actually...the determination of exactly what fats were decreased, what fats were introduced, or what fats were actually increased, that's what made it so interesting. So, this is where it goes back to what we said in the beginning. When you look at that Cyclodextrin group, the trans-fats were actually cut by 25%. Saturated fats were actually reduced by 10%. There was a 13% increase in actual Omega-3 fatty acids, DHA. And then, if they looked at or if you look at the actual LDL and HDL levels, the LDL, I believe was decreased by 5% and I believe the HDL remained the same. I could be wrong on that one, but I believe that's how I remembered the study being written. So, you have a reduction in LDL. You have pretty much the same in HDL. You have a removal of these unhealthy fatty acids. You have an increase in the beneficial, healthy fatty acids.

So, whenever we look at all these studies, whenever we look at a lot of these...and actually, I should've even probably mentioned another study. And this was, again, pretty much the same thing where researchers actually fed rats a really high-fat diet, again, some supplements with Cyclodextrin, some were the control group. They found, once again, that there was actually a 30% reduction in plasma glyceride levels, 9% reduction in cholesterol, an increase of the amount of fat excretion in actual fecal matter, and it showed overall less weight gain despite the high-fat diets being exactly the same. Again, we look further at these kind of fat reduction, glucose-based studies and they keep finding improved insulin sensitivity. They keep finding normalization of serum leptin levels. And again, leptin is that satiety hormone that signals the body to basically turn off that feeling of hunger. That in it of itself has some really cool applications but we won't really get to it just yet.

So, we have all this information. Now, we kind of go into the gold standard here where they, then after all this information came out, they were kind of like, "Okay, we have enough science to put together a randomized placebo-controlled human trial. Let's see what really happens." Now, this study was very well-designed. Had obese patients with, I believe, type 2 diabetes, and the participants gained an average of 2.2 pounds each over a 30-day period prior to the intervention phase. So, then they selected a group of these participants, which were randomly assigned to take two grams of Cyclodextrin with each fat-containing meal of the day. The rest were given basically placebos and all the volunteers were actually asked not to change their regular eating habits or daily routines. So, once the supplementation period began, the placebo group actually continued to gain weight but the Cyclodextrin group didn't experience any further gain in weight.

Additionally, if you look here, the actual two groups showed major, and I mean major differences in lipid profiles by the end of the study. We saw that those that didn't use the Cyclodextrin had elevated lipids whereas the people that did use Cyclodextrin actually had significantly reduced cholesterol levels. I believe it was something like 8.2%, which is a noticeable increase, especially in my eyes. And then, if you looked at that, I believe they actually documented, noted there was increased levels of adiponectin, a hormone that basically regulates glucose levels and actually promotes fatty acid breakdown in the actual Cyclodextrin group while levels of adiponectin in the other group basically fell around the same. You look a little bit more at some of the cardiovascular benefits that they found in the study, and it was pretty interesting if you looked...So, the study actually looked at a group of overweight people with body mass index of, I believe, 25 to 30, something like that, and they were basically randomly assigned, again, a placebo or two grams of Cyclodextrin with each meal. And that amounts, I believe, about six or so grams of Cyclodextrin per day.

So, after two months of looking at this group, the supplemented individuals actually showed a massive rate, once again, of metabolic benefits. So, the people that took Cyclodextrin saw an average 5.3 decrease in total cholesterol levels, an average 6.7 decrease in LDL levels compared to the controls wherever they saw...Actually, it was interesting. They actually saw in here the supplemented patient levels of APOB, which is an atherosclerosis-promoting protein, actually fell by 5.6% and their insulin levels fell by 9.5%. So, the people that are taking these Cyclodextrin groups are benefiting greatly and drastically more so than the people that aren't taking the Cyclodextrin.

These studies go on and on. There was another study, again, Cyclodextrin was demonstrated to actually absorb many times its weight in fat and to sustain its beneficial effects over a prolonged period of time. So, they had 66 obese, diabetic patients randomly assigned to either a placebo or two one-gram tablets of Cyclodextrin with each meal for three months. Again, total about six grams per day. Seemed to be a sweet spot with a lot of these studies. And more weight was lost by those with the highest intakes of total in actual saturated fats than those with the lower intakes. So, this just further shows that Cyclodextrin is preferentially blocking more of the dangerous fatty acids. It's pretty crazy to be looking at these studies, reading them one after one and realizing, holy crap. This may not only be able to be helping from a glucose standpoint, be helping from a fat standpoint, but to be helping from an overall metabolic standpoint.

So, there's three things that I really like talking about and that is always the science behind something, which we just covered in forms of the actual studies, which again, you can go and read yourself. Please do. Because again, I am far from an expert on anything in this world. If you know more than me, if you consider yourself an expert in Cyclodextrin, please reach out to me and I can get you on the podcast, on these videos, something like that, because we're obviously all trying to learn. Again, ProfessorNutz™ obviously has their variation of Cyclodextrin that works in a different fashion, but you get what I'm trying to say. So, we looked at the science. We know what the literature says. Now, we look at two other things. We look at actual application and then we throw in some common sense. Because to me, you use those three things in the fitness industry and you can pretty much determine whether someone or something is full of BS or not.

So, the common or the practical application, the experience side of things. People have been using ProfessorNutz and they have not been gaining bodyweight. I have clients in prep that have just gotten in their product and they're continuing to lose weight. Some of them have kept the actual amount of peanut butter the same. So, instead of switching out, you know, we would basically switch out two tablespoons of regular market leading peanut butter for two tablespoons of ProfessorNutz, and guess what, their weight keeps dropping. Probably at a more accelerated rate, but I can't really say that, you know, 100% certain. Sorry about that, something popped up in the screen. And then other people, we actually doubled the intakes so they were having a tablespoon of peanut butter. We may have done even two or three tablespoons of ProfessorNutz and they're still losing weight in prep. So, like I said before, I am a prep coach, first and foremost. If this was causing them to gain weight, I would tell them to drop it. I would say, "Okay, we're gonna do this experiment with someone else because you're three weeks out from a show."

So, we look at the application side of things. People aren't experiencing the weight gain. One interesting thing that I have noticed is with type 1 diabetics. I've had some people reach out to me. And in healthy, normal individuals, I've been seeing that ProfessorNutz has been reducing their glucose levels. And reducing their body weight, because obviously, they're switching out calorie for calorie, or like I said, they're replacing them and they're still losing body weight. But type 1 diabetics are seeing a spike in insulin and glucose levels, which I'm really not sure about. That kind of has me stumped. Again, I don't know enough about the variation that ProfessorNutz™ used of Cyclodextrin that might be causing this.

Now, remember, it can also be a person to person case. I've had three or four type 1 diabetics reach out who have tried ProfessorNutz and have said this to me. Everyone is responding differently. Whenever you are looking at a population and you're comparing healthy to non-healthy individuals, which would be your normal people versus your type 1 diabetics, there's so many different things going on that I don't have all the information, but it's just something to note. But overall, the actual experience and application of this, is it's showing that, guess what, you're not absorbing all the calories because you're still losing weight. You're still getting the satiated effect from the food. You're still getting the product how it should be working. If Cyclodextrin does all this in the studies and then you see it and you apply it in real-world application and that actually shows the same thing, okay, we got two out of three things.

Now, the last thing is the common sense side of things. This is where I have to give credit to my fiancé Lindsay for it because whenever we first came out with this, whenever I first came out with my breakdown video talking about ProfessorNutz, you had people that were freaking out in the supplement industry and it's mainly the people that wanna sit down and they now wanna replace two tablespoons of their regular market leading peanut butter with a whole jar of ProfessorNutz. Joe Binley said in the video, "That's not what we want you to do." But the fitness industry takes things, everything like that.

And I'm quoting my fiancé here, what she said, you know, "The people that are freaking out are those fat pigs that now just wanna sit down and just have an excuse to eat a whole jar." So, people that have eating disorders. People that have issues with food that shouldn't be there. Again, I understand that eating disorders are very common in our fitness industry, but this product was not made for you to eat more, not exceedingly more. This product should be used to replace, to be used as a caloric deficit or to be able to...This isn't something that you want to now be using and eating the entire tub for. This is something that you're in prep and you have two tablespoons of regular market leading peanut butter and now you drop down to two tablespoons of ProfessorNutz so that, "Hey, guess what, now I'm in a caloric deficit. I'm still losing weight, but I'm still eating the same volume of food." You shouldn't be abusing it. That's the common sense side of things that I really wanted to talk about.

So, we have my affiliation with the company. We have my unbiased review on everything, all of their products, especially ProfessorNutz. We have the science behind ProfessorNutz and Cyclodextrin. We have the actual application of ProfessorNutz and Cyclodextrin. And now, we also have the common sense side of things. So, those are five big points that bring me to saying this final conclusion of try it yourself. Don't believe me. Don't believe the research. Spend the $12 or $10, or whatever it is, and try it for yourself. If you're really gonna be that, I guess, annoyed by this product, because some people got really p***d off about it, then try it for yourself. If you don't wanna support the company, that's fine. Don't support the company. Don't buy the product. But don't go around bashing it until you've actually tried it. Because again, I've had people try it, I'm seeing this happening every day, and people are still losing weight. There has to be something going on. The literature backs it up. The actual application backs it up. The common sense side of things backs thing up.

So, again, don't take my word for it. Don't take this review's word for it. Don't take the science's...don't take the literature's review for it. Go out, buy it yourself and try it. Again, don't be an idiot about it. You're not supposed to be replacing and having a whole jar of peanut butter per day. No matter who you are, that's just not good practice. That's just not intelligent eating. You should be eating like an adult. But go out, buy it, replace your normal peanut butter and keep notes. Send them to me. Send them to Joe Binley. Send them to anyone at ProfessorNutz™ and I'm sure that you'll get an amazing response. Or at least like for me, I'll say, "Hey, thank you for your input," because I'm collecting all this data. That's one thing I've done with all of my clients whether it be bloodwork, whether it be a review on different supplements, whether it be reviews on anything out there, different training protocols, different nutritional strategies, we are collecting all this data and we are conducting our own scientific experiments to see what is working, what's not working.

So, as always, guys, thank you for watching. This is really the breakdown of ProfessorNutz, the science behind ProfessorNutz. I hope you guys enjoyed it. If you are shopping at ProjectAD or ProfessorNutz™ or anything like that, coupon card BFR25. As always, thank you for watching. Check out theprepcoach.com. I'll see you guys next time. Oh, and if you tried the peanut butter, if you like it, if you don't like it, whatever kind of feedback you have, email me because I wanna know."

Understanding how gut health and the human gut microbiome interacts with absorbing fats is critical in understanding new science into food technology and challenging metabolic syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes. You can now test your gut microbiome from home at an affordable cost using testing kits such as this: Home microbiome test. From the results gathered, you'll gain a greater understanding into what you should and shouldn't consume to combat weight gain.

References and studies can be reviewed here: References & Studies


Buckley JD, Thorp AA, Murphy KJ, Howe PR. Dose-dependent inhibition of the post-prandial glycaemic response to a standard carbohydrate meal following incorporation of Cyclodextrin. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(2):108-14.

Suzuki M, Sato A. Nutritional significance of cyclodextrins: indigestibility and hypolipemic effect of Cyclodextrin . J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1985 Apr;31(2):209-23.

Jen KL, Grunberger G, Artiss JD. On the binding ratio of Cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements. 2013;(5):9-15.

Wagner EM, Jen KL, Artiss JD, Remaley AT. Dietary Cyclodextrin lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alters plasma fatty acid profile in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on a high-fat diet. Metabolism. 2008 Aug;57(8):1046-51.

Gallaher DD, Gallaher CM, Plank DW. Cyclodextrin selectively increases fecal excretion of saturated fats. FASEB J. 2007;21(701):2.

Artiss JD, Brogan K, Brucal M, Moghaddam M, Jen KL. The effects of a new soluble dietary fiber on weight gain and selected blood parameters in rats. Metabolism. 2006 Feb;55(2):195-202.

Grunberger G, Jen KL, Artiss JD. The benefits of early intervention in obese diabetic patients with FBCx: a new dietary fibre. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Jan;23(1):56-62.

Comerford KB, Artiss JD, Jen KL, Karakas SE. The beneficial effects of Cyclodextrin on blood lipids and weight loss in healthy humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jun;19(6):1200-4.

Mortensen LS, Thomsen C, Hermansen K. Effects of different protein sources on plasminogen inhibitor-1 and factor VII coagulant activity added to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud. 2010 Fall;7(3):233-40.

Peddie MC, Rehrer NJ, Perry TL. Physical activity and postprandial lipidemia: are energy expenditure and lipoprotein lipase activity the real modulators of the positive effect? Prog Lipid Res. 2012 Jan;51(1):11-22.

Tanaci N, Ertugrul DT, Sahin M, et al. Postprandial lipemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with hypothyroidism. Endocrine . 2006 Jun;29(3):451-6.

Jarosz PA, Fletcher E, Elserafy E, Artiss JD, Jen KL. The effect of Cyclodextrin on postprandial lipid and glycemic responses to a fat-containing meal. Metabolism. 2013 Oct;62(10):1443-7.

Jouni ZE, Zamora J, Snyder M, Montfort WR, Weichsel A, Wells MA. a-Cyclodextrin extracts diacylglycerol from insect high density lipoproteins. J Lipid Res. 2000;41:933-9.